Atmospheric Hazards can occur in the following conditions:
- An Atmospheric concentration of oxygen that is less than 19.5%
- Flammable gases, vapors or mists in excess of 10% of their LFL within the environment
- An airborne concentration of a substance that exceeds the dose or exposure limit specified by an OSHA requirement
- Any other atmospheric condition recognized as immediately dangerous to life or health
Outside of confined spaces, falls represent the number one cause of death on construction sites and for many years in the early to mid parts of the beginning of the 21st century the second leading cause overall in all of industry, behind only automobile incidents. Thus, when coupled with a confined space hazard, the risks of a fall cannot be overestimated.
Same Level Falls
Falls to a Lower Level
Case Study: Fall Hazard
Flame & Explosion
The risk of fire and explosion due to ignition of flammable vapors or gases. Flammable gases, such as well gases, vapors, and hydrogen sulfide, can be released from wells, trucks, production equipment or surface equipment such as tanks and shale shakers. Ignition sources can include static, electrical energy sources, open flames, lightning, cigarettes, cutting and welding tools, hot surfaces, and frictional heat.
Changing the workplace to eliminate the hazard. Ex. putting the lights in a crane bay on hoists so that the lights can be lowered and changed at ground level versus having to climb or use a lift to get to the lights. Another example would be substituting a toxic solvent with a non-toxic solvent therefore eliminating the hazard.
Physically changing the space to control a hazard. An example would be to add a ventilation hood at the point of exposure to welding fumes so that worker exposure is reduced and the overall work area exposure is reduced. Also a guard rail installed protecting workers in a fall hazardous area from exposure to a fall hazard would be another example.
Restricting access or implementing a procedure to reduce the employee exposure to a hazard. Restricting access to a crane ladder would only allow workers trained and authorized to access the hazardous area. Increasing the frequency of breaks and hydration for workers in a hot work area to reduce the chance of heat related incidents would also be a form of administrative controls.
When the higher order safety controls are not able to be used then the worker must be protected from the hazards in the work area by wearing protective equipment as protection from the work are hazards.